Elizabeth Boynton Harbert

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A Summary Biography of Elizabeth Boynton Harbert

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A SUMMARY BIOGRAPHY OF
ELIZABETH BOYNTON HARBERT  1   This work is a mere summary of the life of its subject. It is the intention of the author to provide a fully developed biography in due course.

by JOHN A. FREDERICK
© 2012

The subject of this summarized biography was born Elizabeth Morrison Boynton, the first child of William Henry ("Billy") Boynton and Abigail Upton ("Abby") Sweetser. Lizzie's father was a native of Dunstable/Nashua, New Hampshire; while her mother had been born in Fitchburg, Massachusetts. They had each separately settled in Indiana in 1840; and were married on 30 April 1841 in Indianapolis, the Rev. Henry Ward Beecher performing the ceremony.  2   Date of marriage: Indiana State Library Genealogy Database: Marriages through 1850. Rev. Beecher: EBH letter to her infant children dated 14 Mar 1876 [original in possession of author].

Lizzie was born on 15 April 1843 in Crawfordsville, Indiana.  3   EBH letter to her infant children dated 14 Mar 1876. See also her death certificate. Her birth was greeted by "a circle of admiring aunts and uncles [as] a great event"; and, was accompanied by a rather strange rumor:

"... my mother has often told me how a small boy, whose occupation was that of wood carrier, tremblingly asked to see the baby and then, more anxiously still, inquired 'if it was really true that the baby spoke when she was three days old, and said the world was coming to an end' [stating] he had heard down town."  4   Ibid.

Lizzie was a happy child, who enjoyed laughing and making others laugh. In 1885 her mother wrote a birthday letter to Lizzie's eight-year old daughter, Boynton Harbert "Bess" Rowe, describing Lizzie in childhood:

Thirty two years ago last April I had a little girl that we were all trying to call Lizzie. She had then been called "Cooney" most of her life. She had been a very funny little girl. I can imagine that I can see her now as I saw her when she was about two years and a half old, running off down to her father's store with a great large velvet bonnet on which belonged to her Aunt Mary. *** She used to love to do anything that was funny and delighted to make folks laugh.  5   Abigail (Sweetser) (Boynton) Ramey to her granddaughter, Boynton Elizabeth "Bess" Harbert, 28 Oct 1885 [copy in possession of author]. The nickname "Cooney" or "Coonie" was often used in the 1800s to indicate "little rabbit." Many years later (1918), Frank Moody Mills, a life-long friend of Lizzie's who had clerked in her father's store and lived with the family for a time when a young man, mentioned in a letter to Lizzie's husband that she used to be called "Coonie."

Lizzie seems to have been a very precocious child. In a remembrance written by her many years later for her children, she described an event involving the arrival of the first telegraph in Crawfordsville:

Then the excitement & interest attendant upon the discovery of the telegraph. A young uncle had received the position of telegrapher - My father who had gone to Cincinnati, arranged that on a certain evening he would go into the office in Cincinnati and if we would be at the one in Crawfordsville, we could enjoy a conversation - The telegraph office was in the Court House and on the evening in question a political meeting was being held the oratorral sentences being endorsed by numerous stamping of the feet. One of the popular songs of the time was entitled "Whose Dat Knocking, let us in." My father requested that I be asked to send my own message - instantly little four year old replied - "Whose dat knocking, let me in." A friend of my father's who was in the Cincinnati office, thought the message so deserving that he sent me a library of fifty small books - Oh! those books! Read and loaned and finally presented to an African School.  6   Autobiographical notes of her early life written for the benefit of her children [original in possession of the author]. The "young uncle" was Robert E. Bryant, husband of Abby's sister, Ellen Sweetser. Lizzie's recollection concerning the timing - i.e., 1847, when she was four years old - is supported by the history of telegraphy in the Midwest. See George P. Oslin, The Story of Telecommunications (Mercer University Press, 1999), 61.

When Lizzie was "about ten years of age," she persuaded the county sheriff to allow her access to the county jail so that she could "read the Bible to a partially insane man." She also passed "peaches and apples through the bars [of the jail] to a young man detained for many months, during his trial for horse-stealing." She taught in a local "African Sunday school;" and was often "so full of merriment, music, & dancing" that Abby was often asked "if she was educating her for the stage."  7   Ibid.

Her childhood home was often visited by many Indiana worthies, including the Rev. Henry Ward Beecher, who was a friend of Lizzie's great-uncle, Phillips Sweetser, an early resident of Indianapolis. Beecher, who arrived in Indianapolis in 1839, became a member of the board of trustees of Wabash College, located in Crawfordsville. Sometime in the late 1840s he, with his brother Charles, were guests in the Boynton household.  8   Ibid. See also Frank Moody Mills, Early Days In A College Town (1924), 127.

Lizzie's father had been a Crawfordsville merchant since 11 February 1840 (the day of his arrival from Oxford, Ohio).  9   William Henry Boynton to Mary White Boynton, 14 Feb 1840 [original in author's possession; image available at The Boynton-Harbert Society website]. The degree of his success by the early 1850s can be gauged by the following incident from Lizzie's childhood:

One morning just before [my] ninth birthday, a large wagon appeared at the door. [My] father handed [me] a key with the remark "Did I hear you say you needed a wardrobe in your room?" Immediately he was almost smothered with kisses between the exclamation "Oh! It's a piano, it's a piano," and thus the first piano in the county was installed in the home.  10   Lizzie's autobiographical notes, op. cit. Lizzie's love of music was passed down to her daughter, Bess, who was a professional harpist; and then to Bess's daughter, Elizabeth, who was an able organist.

The piano would come to play an important role in Lizzie's future education.

Thus, we see that Lizzie's early childhood was filled with laughter, music, and many little adventures that built her character and mental faculties. It was clearly a happy time for her. That happiness suffered a devastating blow in the fall of 1852, as she wrote:

One year from that time [delivery of the piano] just as little Elizabeth was able to play and sing some simple melodies, the great shadow darkened the home. The almost idolized father was suddenly born into angelhood - for one year the piano was closed.  11   Ibid.

Decades later Lizzie would write notes to her own children, describing their grandfather as "a man of rare refinement, unusually affectionate, and of remarkly [sic ] pleasing address" whose name "was a synonym for honorable gentleman."  12   EBH letter to her infant children dated 14 Mar 1876, op. cit. Clearly Lizzie's love for her father ran deep, and he held a prominent place in her memories.

On 26 December 1853 her mother married Alvin Ramey, who had been a clerk in Billy Boynton's store. Lizzie's relationship with "Father Ramey" was a good one. She described him in the notes on her early life as "a patriot and truth-seeker in the best sense." It was, she wrote, "the pleasure of both father and mother to entertain the thinkers and doers of that day."

Lizzie's mother had taught school in Massachusetts before moving westward, and she insured that her daughter received an education. Lizzie attended Miss Starr's grammar and elementary school in Crawfordsville.  13   Jodie Steele Wilson, et al, Hidden History of Montgomery County, Indiana (The History Press, 2012), 136. Then in September 1857, aged 14, she was sent to Western Female Seminary at Oxford, Ohio; and a portion of the necessary tuition was secured by selling the piano Lizzie's father had given her five years earlier.  14   Abigail (Sweetser) (Boynton) Ramey to Lizzie, 27 Sep 1857 [original in possession of author]. Her paternal aunt, Mary, had attended school there in the early 1840s, and the family still had cousins living in the area.

Western Female Seminary was very progressive in the education of its students. Most female schools at that time emphasized the "domestic" education (e.g., needlework) of their students; but, Western's curriculum emphasized academics in conjunction with evangelical Christianity. Its goal was to provide an opportunity for education that was affordable to the less affluent, and its expense was minimized by requiring the students and faculty to grow their own food and perform their own cooking and cleaning. The school was associated with the Presbyterian Church.  15   Roger L. Geiger, The American College in the Nineteenth Century (Vanderbilt University Press, 2000), 171.

Lizzie had grown up in the shadow of another school initially associated with the Presbyterian Church - Wabash College, which was located in Crawfordsville. Like virtually all institutions of higher learning at the time, it did not admit women. Nonetheless, she persevered in search of an education. After completing her attendance at the female seminary at Oxford, Lizzie continued he education at the Terre Haute Female College. It was that perseverance that would ultimately compel her to lead the Woman's Suffrage movement in the mid-West.

During her long career Lizzie would write three books - the first, The Golden Fleece, was published in 1867, when she was just twenty-four years old - as well as several songs and poems.  16   The book was published by the publishing house owned by her long-time family friend, Frank Moody Mills. It was about a year after that Lizzie had become "a staunch advocate of giving women the ballot."  17   Pasadena Star-News, "Local Women Are Overjoyed Over Suffrage Vote,"    18 Aug 1920.

In 1869, at the age of 26, Lizzie spoke at the National Woman's Suffrage Committee convention in Cleveland. The Rev. Henry Ward Beecher was the association's president at the time. On 9-10 September 1869 she represented Indiana at the Western Convention of the National Woman's Suffrage Committee held in Library Hall, Chicago.  18   Elizabeth Cady Stanton, et al, ed., History of Woman Suffrage, (Rochester, N.Y.: Charles Mann, 1887), v. 3, p. 570.

We get some insight into her life from a letter written by Mrs. Miriam Cole to the Woman's Advocate of Ohio in 1870 concerning a recent trip she had made to Crawfordsville where she found Lizzie, then 27 years old:

... living a half dozen lives, entertaining with as much grace as if she had never had an idea beyond a parlor; writing lectures, lecturing, etc., etc., and yet so domestic withal she said to me sub rosa that she was more pleased at receiving a premium at a county fair for the best cake, than at the first ten dollars received from the New York Independent for an article.

On 18 October 1870, Lizzie married attorney William Soesbe Harbert (bvt. captain in the 85th Indiana Regt during the Civil War), whom she had met on 19 Mar 1860 while he was attending Wabash College.  19   Letter from Lizzie to Will, dated 19 Mar 1864, in which she reminded him of friends introducing them while she was attending a festival hosted by Prof. Campbell of Wabash College "... I was introduced and now the girl you met, the "sweet sixteen" is a woman of twenty ..." Lizzie was sixteen in Mar 1860, turning 17 the following month. [copy of letter in possession of author.] They had been sweethearts through most of the war and, following a break-up that was mended a few years later, had rekindled their romance. At the time of their marriage, Will was practicing law in Des Moines, Iowa, where all the Harberts had relocated, and that is where the newlyweds established their home. Prior to her marriage, Lizzie had been the vice-president of the Woman's Suffrage Association of Indiana, and she continued her activities in support of suffrage after her move to Iowa. As President of the Iowa Woman Suffrage Association she induced the state Republican Party to include a woman's rights plank in its platform. Thus, she was the first woman to design and secure a woman's rights plank in a major political party's state platform.  20   Newton Bateman, et al, ed., Historical Encyclopedia of Illinois and History of Evanston, Ill. (Chicago: Munsell Publishing Company, 1906), v. II, "Elizabeth Boynton Harbert," 559. [This source is particularly reliable in that the sketch of Lizzie's life appearing therein was "with but slight and immaterial changes, from the pen" of her son, Arthur (1872-1900). Ibid., 562.]

Lizzie's second novel, Out of Her Sphere, was published in 1871, at age 28. On May 4, 1871, she was elected as vice-president of the Polk County Woman Suffrage Society.  21   Louise R. Noun, Strong-Minded Women: The Emergence of the Woman-Suffrage Movement in Iowa; (The Iowa State University Press, 1970), 158. In June of that year she was among the Des Moines Women who attempted to present a petition for woman's suffrage to the Republican Party convention.  22   Ibid., 206-207. A mere three months later, September 4th, she & Will welcomed the birth to their first child, Arthur.

She was president of the Iowa Woman's Association and was responsible for drafting the woman's plank of the Iowa State Republican Party platform. In 1873 when it was learned that she and her family would be moving to Chicago the following year, the Iowa State Register wrote:

This is a decided loss. Mrs. Harbert well and popularly known to the people of Iowa, before she became a resident of the State now leaves as large a circle of friends as any lady in Iowa could have. Her true and amiable worth as a woman, her brilliancy in literature, as writer and speaker, her superior ability as a leader in the woman suffrage cause have won her thousands of friends in Iowa. Her election to the presidency of the State association was compliment such is rarely paid to a woman so young. Her removal from the state will cause very general regret.

On 28 September of that year, Lizzie gave birth to her second child, Corinne.

On 1 July 1874, Lizzie attended the Iowa State Republican Convention and went before the resolutions committee, appealing for a plank in the platform recognizing a woman's proper role in politics. The result was the insertion of the following as the tenth plank of the platform:

Resolved, That since the people may be entrusted with all questions of governmental reform, we favor the final submission to them of the question of amending the constitution so as to extend the right of suffrage to women, pursuant to the action of the fifteenth General Assembly.  23   Stanton, History of Woman Suffrage, op. cit., 620.

In the winter of 1874 Will & Lizzie moved their family to the Chicago suburb of Evanston, Illinois. It was there, on 24 October, 1875, that Will & Lizzie celebrated the birth of their third, and last child, Boynton Elizabeth (known as "Bess"), at their home at 1412 Judson Ave., just a few blocks south of the campus of Northwestern University. The family would continue to reside at that location until 1906.

On 2 May 1876 at a special convention of the Illinois Woman Suffrage Association Lizzie was named as its President,  24   Ibid., 580. which position she held for 12 years. The convention was attended by Susan B. Anthony,  25   Lizzie and Susan B. Anthony would maintain an extremely close relationship until the latter's death in 1906. SBA wrote Lizzie regularly over those years, often addressing her as "my dear Lizzie." among others, and there Lizzie gave the following address:

"To the Women of the United States of America, greeting: While the centennial clock is striking the hour of opportunity for the Pilgrims' daughters to prove themselves regenerate children of a worthy ancestry, while the air reverberates to the watchwords of the statesmen of the Revolution, let the daughters of the nation, in clear, steady, and womanly voices, chorus through the States: 'Taxation without representation is tyranny,' and 'all governments derive their just powers from the consent of the governed.'

Womanly hands, firm, capable and loving, have been steadily, persistently and unceasingly knocking, knocking at the doors of judicial, ecclesiastical and legislative halls, until at last the rusty bars are yielding and the persistent knocking is beginning to tell upon iron nerves and all kinds of masculine constitutions. Just now, in the centennial year, another door has opened, preparing the way for the Pilgrims' daughters to present their claim before the assembled nation on the 'Fourth of July, 1876.'

A joint resolution of congress, signed by the president of the United States, and made the subject of proclamation by the governor of the State, reads as follows: 'Be it resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America, That it be, and is hereby, recommended by the Senate and the House of Representatives to the people of the several states, that they assemble in the several counties and towns on the approaching centennial anniversary of our national independence, and that they cause to have delivered on such day an historical sketch of said county or town from its foundation, and that a copy of said sketch may be filed, in print or manuscript, in the clerk's office of said county, and an additional copy be filed in the office of the librarian of congress at the city of Washington, to the intent that a complete record may thus be obtained of the progress of our institutions during the first centennial of their existence.'

The governor of this State earnestly recommends that prompt measures be taken in each county and town for the selection of one or more persons who shall prepare complete, thorough and accurate historical sketches of each county, city, town or village, from the date of settlement to the present time.

In view of the fact that since our civil war thousands of charitable, scientific, philanthropic, religious, and political associations have been organized among women, of which but few accurate records are now accessible to the general public, and in view of the fact that the Supreme Court and many of our legislators construe 'persons' to indicate only men (except when persons are to be taxed, fined or executed), we respectfully suggest that in all cases one member of the committee shall be a woman, to the end that there may be submitted to future historians accurate data of the extent and scope of the work of American women; that this historian of woman shall carefully and impartially record the literary, educational, journalistic, industrial, charitable and political work of woman as expressed in temperance, missionary and woman suffrage organization.

Let a meeting of every woman suffrage organization throughout the State, or, where none exists, let any friend of the cause call a meeting, at which a committee shall be appointed to present this suggestion to the people as they may meet in the different cities, villages and towns, to perfect arrangements for their local celebration.

As American citizens we salute the tri-color, emblem of the rights obtained and liberties won by husbands, fathers and sons, meanwhile pledging, if need be, another century of toil and effort to the sacred cause of human rights, and the establishment of a genuine republic."  26   Stanton, op. cit., 580-581.

At the convention it was decided that a Fourth of July celebration was to be held. It was done in Evanston, Illinois, under Lizzie's direction. It was heralded as "The Woman's Fourth." It was held in the Evanston Methodist Church, and Lizzie gave an oration.

She also served as vice-president of the Woman's Suffrage Association of Indiana. In 1876 she was one of the two women appointed by the National Woman's Suffrage Committee as delegates at-large to the National Republican Convention in Cincinnati that nominated Rutherford B. Hayes for President. While there she made an address before the committee on platform and resolutions.  27   Ibid., 26.

In May 1877 a group of individuals identified the need of "a bureau through which the industrial interests of women can be promoted and some practical answer given to the question everywhere heard, 'How can we earn a living?'" This resulted in the formation, in October of that year, of the Illinois Social Science Association, with Lizzie serving as its first president.  28   Ibid., 584. She served in that position for two years. The organization was formed for the purpose of suggesting plans "for the advancement of industrial, intellectual, social, educational and philanthropic interest, to the end that there may be better homes, schools, churches, charities, laws, and better service for humanity and God."

On 12 January 1878, as the vice-president of the Illinois Woman's Suffrage Association, and as the National Woman's Suffrage Association delegate representing Illinois,  29   Among the delegates was Stanton, representing New Jersey. Ibid., 75. she attended a hearing before the U.S. Senate's Committee on Privileges and Elections considering adoption of what would eventually become the 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. On that occasion she addressed the Committee, concluding her statement as follows:

With one practical question I rest my case. The world objected to woman's entrance into literature, the pulpit, the lyceum, the college, the school. What has she wrought? Our wisest thinkers and historians assert that literature has been purified. Poets and judges at international collegiate contests award to woman's thought the highest prize. Miss Lucia Peabody received upon the occasion of her second election to the Boston school board the highest vote ever polled for any candidate. Since woman has proved faithful over a few things, need you fear to summon her to your side to assist you in executing the will of the nation? And now, yielding to none in intense love of womanhood; standing here beneath the very dome of the national capitol overshadowed by the old flag; with the blood of the revolutionary patriots coursing through my veins; as a native-born, tax-paying American citizen, I ask equality before the law.  30   Ibid., 79-80.

Lizzie attended the convention of the National Woman Suffrage Association held 4-8 March 1884 in Washington, D.C., in Lincoln Hall, as delegate from Illinois. At the opening of the session she gave a speech entitled "The Statesmanship of Women." She was chair of the resolutions committee and in such capacity she presented the following resolution, which was adopted by the convention:

WHEREAS, The fundamental idea of a republic is the right of self-government, the right of every citizen to choose her own representatives to enact the laws by which she is governed; and WHEREAS, This right can be secured only by the exercise of the suffrage; therefore Resolved, That the ballot in the hand of every qualified citizen constitutes the true political status of people, and to deprive one-half of the people of the use of the ballot is to deny the first principle of a republican government.

Resolved, That it is the duty of Congress to submit a Sixteenth Amendment to the National Constitution, securing to women the right of suffrage; first, because the disfranchisement of one-half of the people deprives that half of the means of self-protection and support, limits their resources for self-development and weakens their influence on popular thought; second, because giving all men the absolute authority to decide the social, civil and political status of women, creates a spirit of caste, unrepublican in tendency; third, because in depriving the State of the united wisdom of man and woman, that important "consensus of the competent," our form of government becomes in fact an oligarchy of males instead of a republic of the people. Resolved, That since the women citizens of the United States have thus far failed to receive proper recognition from any of the existing political parties, we recommend the appointment by this convention of a committee on future political action.

Resolved, That as there is a general awakening to the rights of women in all European countries, the time has arrived to take the initiative steps for a grand International Woman Suffrage Convention, to be held in either England or America, and that for this purpose a committee of three be appointed at this convention to correspond with leading persons in different countries interested in the elevation of women.  31   Stanton, History of Woman Suffrage, v. 4, pp. 24-25.

While in Washington, Lizzie spoke to the Senate Committee on Woman Suffrage on 7 March, saying:

From the great State of Illinois I come, representing 200,000 men and women of that State who have recorded their written petitions for woman's ballot, 90,000 of these being citizens under the law, male voters; those 90,000 signed petitions for the right of woman to vote on the temperance question; 90,000 women also signed those petitions; 50,000 men and women signed the petition for the school vote, and 60,000 more have signed petitions that the full right of suffrage might be accorded to woman.

This growth of public sentiment has been occasioned by the needs of the children and the working women of that great State. I come here to ask you to make a niche in the statesmanship and legislation of the nation for the domestic interests of the people. You recognize that the masculine thought is more often turned to material and political interests. I claim that the mother-thought, the woman-element needed, is to supplement the statesmanship of American men on political and industrial affairs with domestic legislation.  32   Ibid., 39-40.

Following that convention, she attended the New York State Association convention held in Albany on 11-12 March, during which she addressed the members. On the way to Albany a large reception was held in her honor at the Hoffman House in New York. On 13 March Gov. Grover Cleveland hosted a reception in honor of the convention attendees.  33   Ibid., 839-840.

On 11 June 1884, she was awarded an honorary Ph. D. in Philosophy by Cincinnati Wesleyan College for Young Women.  34   Letter from W. W. Brown, Pres., of Cincinnati Wesleyan College for Young Women to EBH (at Chicago) dated 18 June 1884, reading as follows: "The Faculty and Board of Trustees of this institution, on last Wednesday, June 11th conferred upon you the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Ph. D.)." [copy in possession of author.] On November 19th and 20th of the same year she gave a brief address at the annual meeting of the American Woman Suffrage Association, held at Hershey Hall, Chicago, which meeting she had helped organize and promote.  35   Stanton, History of Woman Suffrage, v. 4, pp. 24-25.

She was president of the Illinois Equal Suffrage Association in 1884, 1889, and 1900.  36   Ibid., 598. In 1887 she assisted Susan B. Anthony and others in canvassing the State of Wisconsin to encourage women there to exercise their right to vote, which had become part of the state constitution in 1886. She was editor for seven years of the "Woman's Kingdom," a regular weekly department of the Chicago Inter-Ocean.  37   Bateman, et al, ed., Historical Encyclopedia of Illinois and History of Evanston, Ill., op. cit., 561.

Lizzie attended the convention held by the National Woman Suffrage Association at the Methodist Episcopal Metropolitan Church in Washington, D.C., from 25-28 January 1887, where she gave an address entitled "Our Motherless Government."  38   Stanton, op. cit., v. 4, p. 115. The convention held four years later at Albaugh's Opera House in Washington (22-26 February 1891) was opened by the singing of the hymn she wrote entitled "The New America."  39   Ibid., 176.

In 1892 Lizzie's third book, Amore, was published. In 1893 she was one of the committee of Chicago women primarily responsible for organizing the Congress of Representative Women held at the World's Columbian Expedition in Chicago, held on 15 May. The Congress lasted for one week, and involved 528 delegates, representing 128 organizations from 27 countries.  40   Ibid., 609-610. In 1893 she founded the Woman's Club of Evanston, which is still an active and vibrant organization today.  41   A partial list of organizations & causes: World's Columbian Exposition; World's Parliament of Religions; World's Congress of Representative Women; Illinois Woman's Press Association; Illinois Press Association; National Household Economic Association; The World's Unity League; & The Forward Movement. Bateman, op. cit., 561. She also participated in attempts to further modify restrictive language in the Wisconsin constitution in 1895.  42   Ibid., 988-989, 991. It was also during the late 1880s and early 1890s that she became a friend and advocate of the New Thought Movement which arose from Christian Science.  43   Beryl Satter, Each Mind A Kingdom - American Women, Sexual Purity, and the New Thought Movement, 1875-1920 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001), 84. [Lizzie's book Amore, is a statement of her related views. It is interesting to note that the heroine always wears white, and that in all photos of Lizzie from the late 1880s she is dressed entirely in white - including during her husband's memorial service in 1919.]

During the period 1874 thru the fall of 1906 Will & Lizzie, along with their three children, resided at the Judson Avenue address in Evanston. They also acquired and regularly used a summer home on Lake Geneva, Wisconsin, called "Tre-Brah" which was lost to fire in the early 1900s. They built another in 1906 along the shores of Lake Michigan in the hills west of Saugatuck, called "Oak Openings" which remained in family ownership until it was seized for back taxes during the Depression. It subsequently fell into disrepair and only a foundation now remains.

In the fall of 1900 tragedy struck the family as Arthur, the oldest child, who had graduated from Northwestern University and practiced law with his father, suddenly took ill and died (22 Nov 1900). Family letters reveal the extreme emotional and mental anguish this caused Lizzie. She never recovered the energy she formerly had in pursuit of her interests and causes.

In November 1906 Will and Lizzie followed their daughter Bess, and her husband Ashley Rowe, to Pasadena, California. Although she became vice-president of the Woman's League of Pasadena and vice-president of the Southern California Woman's Press Association after the move, and aside from occasional minor forays into local social movements, led quiet lives. They did build several homes; and Will's cousin, Frank Harbert, who had settled in southern California years before was active in local politics and real estate development. Will participated in a minor way in both.

Will did not live to see passage of the 19th Amendment to the U. S. Constitution, which occurred on 18 August 1920 and granted women the right to vote. He had died on 24 March of the previous year.  44   Death certificate. But, Lizzie lived to see her life's work completed; and she died on 19 Jan 1925.  45   Death certificate.

Their three children were as follows:

1. Arthur Boynton Harbert (1871 - 1900); d. unmarried, w/o issue.
2. Corinne Boynton Harbert (1873 - 1958); d. unmarried, w/o issue.
3. Boynton Elizabeth "Bess" Harbert, (1875 - 1949); married, 6 Feb 1906, Ashley Davenport Rowe.  46   Marriage certificate. Bess and Ashley had three children, all born in Pasadena, each of whom left children, who in turn left descendants who are currently living.

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